What is this 68–95–99.7?

“Empirical” means based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic. — Oxford

The 68–95–99.7 was first coined and discovered by Abraham de Moivre in 1733 through his experimentation of flipping 100 fair coins. It was more than 75 years before the normal distribution model was introduced.

Formula

µ ± mσ where µ = mean/average; σ = standard deviation; and m = multiplier. (1, to get 68% of data; 2, to get 95% of data; 3, to get 99.7% of data)

Limitation

The Empirical Rule or the 68–95–99.7 is only applicable…


One step in working smart

Preparing a research paper, thesis, or document report requires citation and reference. Referencing avoids plagiarism. It also allows the author to acknowledge the contribution of other authors. It is a way to give credit to the writers from whom you have borrowed words and/or ideas. It is also a way to provide evidence to support the author’s assertions and claims. It also allows the readers to trace the sources of information used. Citations make the document more persuasive.

More than decades ago, organizing references are the most time-consuming activity in thesis writing since the focus of that document is to…


What is Power Transmission?

Power Transmission involves the bulk movement of electrical energy from generating plants to a network, usually a grid system, and then distributed to consumers.

Transmission Towers in the Philippines

The Company and Ownership

The Power Transmission Company has the important role of connecting the generating facilities with distribution utilities in delivering electricity where it is most needed. It also ensures that an adequate and reliable transmission system delivers quality electricity to consumers. It can be owned by a regulated private company or by a government-owned and controlled corporation

Most of its functions involve:

Operations and Maintenance — The company ensures that the government-owned transmission assets are in optimal condition…


— Should companies consider data visualization?

Data Visualization is the representation of data or information in a graph, chart, or other visual formats, and is used to drive action, to inform, and most importantly, to persuade.

Should companies pursue data visualization? Let us discuss the benefits of data visualization, and I hope it will help you in your decision-making on whether or not to consider data visualization.

1. Lesser Time Consumption on Meetings

Meetings are those double-edged swords in the company which can be an asset or a liability. According to the published article last June 17, 2020, entitled, Minutes (Wasted) of Meeting: 50 Shocking Meeting…


Knowing the Past — Preparing the Future

“Those who don’t know history are destined to repeat it” — Edmund Burke

The Ship

The Titanic is one of the most luxurious passenger steamship liner operated by White Star Line, and was thought to be the world’s fastest ship. As the largest movable manmade object in the world at that time, the proud sea captain, Edward John Smith, left an iconic message to the media, “Even God Himself couldn’t sink this ship.”

The Tragedy

Photo from the National Geographic Channel

The Unsinkable Titanic Ship sunk in April 15, 1912 after failing to divert its course from an iceberg and ruptured at least five of its hull compartments.

The Survivors

From an…


First Experience in Tableau

For any aspiring data scientist, being exposed to and knowing different tools to use would provide a better edge over others. In this story, the author would like to share with you his experience in using Tableau for the first time.

What is Tableau?

Tableau is a visual analytics platform transforming the way we use data to solve problems. Empowering people and organizations to make the most of their data. — Tableau Software, LLC, A Salesforce Company

Ways to Have Exclusive Functions of Tableau

Students may take advantage of the “Tableau for Students” using this link. By following the steps, you are given more than a year of exclusivity to…


…Turning Raw Data to Useful Information

“The Annual Data Visualization Community Survey for 2020 has responses to 50+ questions and was taken by over 1,700 people. It covers professional data visualization details like salary and hourly compensation, tool use, location, audiences, organizational structure and more.”

Raw Data are like minerals. They are readily available, and needed to mined and process for it to be useful. These public data available online, like the 2020 survey challenge, are examples of minerals that we can use in our professional and business life, and turn it to profitable information.

Providing you three (3) examples on how we can make our…


Primitive view of life

Normally, like other living things, you should be in a certain cycle such Usage of Basic Needs, Provision of Basic Needs, and Rest.

  • Usage of Basic Needs means having food, water, air, and shelter.
  • Provision of Basic Needs means ability to provide basic needs.
  • Rest means to replenish energy.

Believe it or not — this is where most of our lives take place. To give you an example, below is a chart on how I spend my week.

Weekly Schedule

Usage of Basic Needs — 4% of my daily activity involves eating/drinking.

Provision of Basic Needs — 33%

ARCHIBALD ECHANO

Filipino | Registered Electrical Engineer | Aspiring Data Scientist | Principal Engineer at National Transmission Corporation

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store